Types of Chinese tea 中国茶的种类


 中国茶的种类

Types of Chinese tea

由于我国产茶历史悠久,茶区辽阔,自然条件各异,茶树品种繁多,更因采制加工方法不同,从而形成了千姿百态、丰富多彩的茶品。人们通过长期的实践,创造并采用了不同的加工制作工艺,发展了从不发酵、半发酵到全发酵一系列不同茶类,逐步形成了中国传统意义上的六大茶类:绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、白茶、黄茶、黑茶。此外,花茶和砖茶也是有名的茶品。

Since China has a long history of tea planting, extensive tea areas, various natural conditions, numerous varieties of tea trees and also different methods of tea collecting and processing, it has produced thousands of tea products. Through long-term practice, people have created and adopted diverse processing and making technologies for developing series of tea. These come from non-fermented, half-fermented and fully-fermented teas, which gradually formed the six major types of tea in traditional Chinese concept, which are green tea, black tea, oolong tea, white tea, yellow tea and dark tea. Furthermore, scented tea and brick tea are famous teas as well.

绿茶

Green tea

绿茶是一种不经发酵制成的茶。叶片及汤呈绿色。中国著名的绿茶有西湖龙井、洞庭碧螺春、信阳毛尖,等等。

Green tea is non-fermented. Its leaves and tea soup are green. Famous green tea in China includes West Lake Longjing Tea,Dongting Biluochun tea, XinYang fresh tea made of delicate leaf bud, etc.

红茶

Black tea

红茶是一种经过发酵制成的茶。叶片及汤呈红色。中国著名的红茶有安微祁红、云南镇红、湖北宣红,等等。

Black tea is fermented. Its leaves and tea soup are red. Famous black tea in China includes Qimen black tea from Anhui, Zhenjiang black tea from Yunnan and Xuanhong black tea from Hubei, etc.

乌龙茶

Oolong tea

乌龙茶是一种半发酵茶,特征是叶片中心为绿色,边缘为红色,俗称绿叶红镶边。主要产于福建、广东、台湾等地。一般以产地的茶树命名,如铁观音、大红袍、乌龙等。它有红茶的醇厚,而又比一般红茶涩味浓烈;有绿茶的清爽,而无一般绿茶的涩味,其香气浓烈持久,饮后留香,并具提神、消食、止痢、解暑、醒酒等功效。

Oolong tea is half-fermented. The character of this type is the leaves showing green in the centre and red at the edge, it is commonly called green leaves with red edging. It is mainly produced in Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan, etc. Generally, it is named in accordance with tea trees of producing areas, e.g. Tie Guan Yin, Da Hong Pao Tea and Oolong, etc. It is mellow as black tea but bitter and stronger than ordinary black tea while fresh as green tea but without the bitterness of ordinary green tea. It keeps strong and long-lasting flavor even after drinking, and has the effects such as refreshing oneself, promoting digestion, curing dysentery, cooling down the summer heat and sobering up, etc.

白茶

White tea

白茶是一种不经发酵,亦不经揉捻的茶。具有天然香味,茶分大白、水仙白、山白等类。其中以银针白毫最为名贵,特点是遍披白色茸毛,并带银色花泽,汤色略黄而滋味甜醇。主要产地在福建福鼎县和政和县。

White tea is non-fermented and needs no rolling. It has natural flavor and can be divided into large white, narcissus white and mountain white, etc. Among them, the most famous and precious one is white tip silver needle whose features are: coating with white fuzz all around and with shining silver glosss, tea soup is slightly yellow and mellow. The main producing areas are Fuding County and Zhenghe County from Fujian Province.

黑茶

Dark tea

黑茶属于后发酵茶,是我国特有的茶类,生产历史悠久,以制成紧压茶边销为主,主要产于湖南、湖北、四川、云南、广西等地。主要品种有湖南黑茶、四川边茶、云南普洱茶等。其中云南普洱茶于古今中外久负盛名。

Dark tea belongs to post-fermented tea, which is a special tea from China with a long production history. Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan and Guangxi etc. are focused on producing pressed tea and selling to border areas. Main types of dark tea are Hunan dark tea, Sichuan brick tea and Yunnan puer tea, etc., among which Yunnan puer tea has great fame for a long time in modern and ancient times in all around the world.

黄茶

Yellow tea

黄茶属发酵茶类,黄茶的制作与绿茶有相似之处,不同点是多一道闷堆工序。这个闷堆过程是黄茶制法的主要特点,也是它同绿茶的基本区别。代表茶有蒙顶黄芽、霍山黄芽。

Yellow tea is fermented, whose production process is similar to that of green but has one more stack-cover process. This extra process is the main feature of yellow tea production and also the fundamental distinction with green tea. Typical types are Mengding yellow tea and Huoshan yellow tea.

其他著名茶品

Other famous teas

花茶。花茶是成品绿茶之一。将香花放在茶胚中窨制而成。常用的香花有茉莉、珠兰、玳玳、玫瑰、柚花等。以福建、江苏、浙江、安徽、四川为主要产地。苏州茉莉花茶,是花茶中的名品;福建茉莉花茶,属浓香型茶,茶汤醇厚,香味浓烈,汤黄绿,鲜味持久。

Scented tea. Scented tea is one of the made-up green tea, which is made by putting fragrant flowers into tea embryos with scenting process. The most commonly used fragrant flowers are jasmine, chloranthus, petitgrain, rose and pomelo flower, etc. The main producing areas are Fujian, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Sichuan. Jasmine tea from Suzhou is famous among scented tea while jasmine tea from Fujian belongs to tea with strong flavor, which has mellow tea soup, strong scent, yellow and green soup and long-lasting freshness.

砖茶。砖茶属紧压茶。用绿茶、花茶、老青茶等原料茶经蒸制后放入砖形模具压制而成。主要产于云南、四川、湖南、湖北等地。砖茶又称边销茶,主要销售边疆、牧区等地。

Brick tea. Brick tea belongs to pressed tea. It is made by pressing steamed raw tea such as green tea, scented tea and old green tea in brick-shaped moulds. It is mainly produced in Yunnan, Sichuan, Hunan and Hubei, etc. Brick tea is also referred to as border area tea, which is mainly sold to border areas and pasturing areas, etc.

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