Peking Opera 京剧


京剧

Peking Opera

时间:2006年

Date: 2006

类别:传统戏剧

Category: Traditional Opera

地区:中央,北京,天津,辽宁,上海,山东

Region: Nationwide, Beijing, Tianjin, Liaoning, Shanghai, Shandong

编号:Ⅳ—28

Project No. IV-28

申报地区或单位:中国京剧院北京市天津市辽宁省山东省上海市

Name of Applicant (region or institution): China Peking Opera Theatre, Beijing Municipality, Tianjin Municipality, Liaoning Province, Shandong Province, Shanghai Municipality

京剧又称平剧、京戏,是中国影响最大的戏曲剧种,分布地以北京为中心,遍及全国。清代乾隆五十五年起,原在南方演出的三庆、四喜、春台、和春四大徽班陆续进入北京,他们与来自湖北的汉调艺人合作,同时接受了昆曲、秦腔的部分剧目、曲调和表演方法,又吸收了一些地方民间曲调,通过不断的交流、融合,最终形成京剧。

Peking Opera, also known as Ping Opera or Capital Opera, is China’s most popular kind of traditional opera, circulating in Beijing (as the center) and the rest of the country. Back in Year 55 during the reign of Qianlong of Qing Dynasty, the four Anhui troupes of Sanqing, Sixi, Chuntai and Hechun that were originally performing down in the south moved to Beijing gradually. They had cooperated with the Han tune artists from Hubei and accommodated part of the programs of Kun Opera and Qin Tune as well as their styles while assimilating the elements of local folk tunes before it finally became today’s Peking Opera through constant communication and integration.

在文学、表演、音乐、舞台美术等各个方面,京剧都有一套规范化的艺术表现程式。京剧的唱腔属板式变化体,以二簧、西皮为主要声腔。四平调、反四平调、汉调等都从属于二簧,南梆子、娃娃调则从属于西皮。二簧旋律平稳,节奏舒缓,唱腔浑厚凝重;西皮旋律起伏较大,节奏紧凑,唱腔明快流畅。京剧伴奏分文场和武场两大类,文场使用胡琴(京胡)、京二胡、月琴、弦子、笛子、唢呐等,而以胡琴为主奏乐器;武场以鼓板为主,小锣、大锣次之。京剧的脚色分为生、旦、净、丑、杂、武、流等行当,后三行现已不再立专行。各行当内部还有更细的划分,如旦行就有青衣、花旦、刀马旦、武旦、老旦之分。其划分依据除人物的自然属性外,更主要的是人物的性格特征和创作者对人物的褒贬态度。各行当都有一套表演程式,唱念做打的技艺各具特色。

In terms of literature, performance, music and stage arts, Peking Opera has a set of standardized procedures of performance. Its tune is actually a variation of clapper style, with Erhuang and Xipi as its main tune. The Siping Tune, Counter-Siping Tune and Han Tune are all under the category of Erhuang while South Clappers and Baby Tune under that of Xipi. The melody of Erhuang is relatively smooth and slow while presented in a resonant and measured tone whereas Xipi features a rather rolling melody and is performed with a quick tempo and greater fluency. The accompaniment of Peking Opera comes in Quiet Setting and Dynamic Setting: for the Quiet Setting, the Huqin fiddle (Jinghu fiddle), Peking Erhu, Yue zither, Xianzi, flute and trumpet, with Huqin fiddle as the main instrument; for the Dynamic Setting, drum clappers are mainly used besides Little gong and Big Gong as complement. The roles of Peking Opera fall into Sheng (male), Dan (female), Jing (painted face), Chou (clown), Wu (swordplay by female) and Liu (gangster), with the latter three no longer classified as specialization. And there are further classifications among each role: e.g. in the role of Dan (female): there are Qingyi (Black Gown), Huadan (Young Lady), Daomadan (swordplay and horse ride), Wudan (swordplay), and Laodan (old female). The criterion for classification is, apart from the basic nature of the roles, more on the feature of character of the roles as well as the author’s attitudes towards them. Each role has a set of performing procedures with chant, recital, acting and martial formation all revealing its unique aspects.

京剧以历史故事为主要演出内容,传统剧目约有一千三百多个,常演的在三四百个以上,其中《宇宙锋》、《玉堂春》、《长坂坡》、《群英会》、《打渔杀家》、《空城计》、《贵妃醉酒》、《三岔口》、《野猪林》、《二进宫》、《拾玉镯》、《挑华车》、《四进士》、《搜孤救孤》、《霸王别姬》、《四郎探母》等剧家喻户晓,为广大观众所熟知。新中国成立后,京剧改编、移植、创作了一些新的历史剧和现代题材作品,重要的有《将相和》、《穆桂英挂帅》、《杨门女将》、《海瑞罢官》、《曹操与杨修》、《沙家浜》、《红灯记》、《智取威虎山》、《黛诺》、《骆驼祥子》等。

With historical stories as the main content for performance, Peking Opera has about 1,300 programs, with those often on play being three to four hundred. Those that are most popular among households include The Universal Pagoda, Spring in the Jade Hall, Changban Slope, A Get-together of Heroes, The Fisherman’s Revenge, Strategy of Empty Fortress, The Drunken Concubine, Three-way Crossing, Wild Boar Forest, Entering the Palace a Second Time, Finding the Jade Bracelet, Stopping the Stone Rollers, Four Successful Candidates of Imperial Examination, Search and Rescue of Orphanage, The King Seeing off his Concubine, and Fourth Son Visiting his Mother. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Peking Opera expands to take in some adaption, implantation and creation of some new historical plays and works on modern themes: The Compromise of General and Prime Minister, Mu Guiying Swearing in as the General, Women Knights of the Yang Family, Hai Rui Resigning from his Post, Cao Cao and Yang Xiu, The Story of Shajiabang, The Story of Red Lamp, The Seizure of Tiger Mountain by Strategy, The Story of Dainuo, and The Rickshaw Boy: Xiangzi.

京剧有“京派”和“海派”之分,不同时期出现过许多优秀的演员,如清末的程长庚、余三胜、张二奎、梅巧玲、谭鑫培、孙菊仙、汪桂芬、刘鸿声、田桂凤、余紫云、陈德霖、王瑶卿等,民国年间的余叔岩、言菊朋、高庆奎、马连良、杨宝森、梅兰芳、程砚秋、荀慧生、尚小云、周信芳、金少山等。

Peking Opera is divided into The Beijing School and The Shanghai School with many noted performers at various stages such as Cheng Changgeng, Yu Sansheng, Zhang Erkui, Mei Qiaoling, Tan Xinpei, Sun Juxian, Wang Guifen, Liu Hongsheng, Tian Guifeng, Yu Ziyun, Lu Delin and Wang Yaoqing at the end of Qing Dynasty and Yu Shuyan, Yan Jupeng, Gao Qingkui, Ma Lianliang, Yang Baosen, Mei Lanfang, Cheng Yanqiu, Xun Huisheng, Shang Xiaoyun, Zhou Xinfang and Jin Shaoshan during the era of The Republic of China.

京剧流播全国,影响甚广,有“国剧”之称。它走遍世界各地,成为介绍、传播中国传统文化的重要手段。以梅兰芳命名的京剧表演体系已经被视为东方戏剧表演体系的代表,与斯坦尼斯拉夫斯基及布莱希特表演体系并称为世界三大表演体系。京剧是中国民族传统文化的重要表现形式,其中的多种艺术元素被用作中国传统文化的象征符号。但近年来随着社会的变迁,京剧艺术与当代人的审美距离逐渐加大,观众锐减,上演剧目萎缩,如何实现京剧的保护和振兴已成为一个亟待解决的课题。

Peking Opera is popular nationwide and has a wide influence, often called the State Opera. It is circulating around the world, becoming an important media for introducing and conveying Chinese culture. The performance system named after Mei Lanfang has been regarded as the representative of the Oriental performance system and was called, together with Stanislavski and Brecht performance systems, the world’s three major performance systems. Peking Opera is an important form of expression of traditional Chinese folk culture, the many artistic elements of which have been used as symbols of traditional Chinese culture. However, in recent years, due to changes of society, the gap between Peking Opera and the contemporary aesthetics has been widening. The number of audience has dropped sharply and the programs have decreased. Consequently, how to realize the preservation and thriving of Peking Opera has become a problem to be addressed very soon.

 

京剧

Peking Opera

京剧

Peking Opera

京剧

Peking Opera

京剧

Peking Opera

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