Dragon Dance 龙舞


 龙舞
Dragon Dance

时间:2006年

Time: 2006

类别:民间舞蹈

Category: Folk Dance

地区:浙江,广东,重庆,四川

Regions: Zhejiang, Guangdong, Chongqing, and Sichuan

编号:Ⅲ-4

Ref. No.: Ⅲ-4

龙舞,也称“舞龙”,民间又叫“耍龙”、“耍龙灯”或“舞龙灯”,在全国各地和各民族间广泛分布,其形式品种的多样,是任何其他民间舞都无法比拟的。早在商代的甲骨文中,已出现以数人集体祭龙求雨的文字;汉代董仲舒《春秋繁露》的记录中已有明确的各种舞龙求雨的记载;此后历朝历代的诗文中记录宫廷或民间舞龙的文字屡见不鲜。直至现在,龙舞仍是民间喜庆节令场合普遍存在的舞蹈形式之一。龙舞最基本的表现手段是其道具造型、构图变化和动作套路。根据龙形道具的扎制材料的不同,分为布龙、纱龙、纸龙、草龙、钱龙、竹龙、棕龙、板凳龙、百叶龙、荷花龙、火龙、鸡毛龙、肉龙等等;北方龙舞的制作一般高大粗重,风格古朴刚劲;南方龙舞则精巧细致,活泼敏捷。龙舞从色彩上可分为黄、白、青、红、黑等,以黄龙最为尊贵。龙舞的构图和动作一般具有“圆曲”、“翻滚”、“绞缠”、“穿插”、“窜跃”等特征。龙舞的传统表演程序一般为:“请龙”、“出龙”、“舞龙”和“送龙”。民间有“七八岁玩草龙,十五六耍小龙,青壮年舞大龙”的说法。舞龙人数少则一人舞双龙,多则百人舞一大龙。

The dragon dance, also known as Wulong, or Shualong, Shualongdeng or Wulongdeng among local people, has become widely popular among various ethnic groups throughout China. With its diversity in forms and varieties, it is unparalleled among any other kind of folk dance in China. Among inscriptions on tortoise shells and bones dating back to as early as the Shang Dynasty, there were texts about men gathering together to worship the dragon and pray for rain; in the Han Dynasty, Dong Zhongshu in his Dews in Spring and Autumn explicitly recorded various kinds of dragon dances as rain prayers; poems and articles in later dynasties are abundant in their descriptions of dragon dances in imperial courts or among the populace. Even today, dragon dances are one of most widespread dance forms for festival folk celebrations. The most basic expressive methods in dragon dances are prop modeling, pattern changes and movement flows. Based on different materials used for making dragon-shaped props, dragons in the dance can be divided into bulong (cloth dragons), shalong (yarn dragons), zhilong (paper dragons), caolong (straw dragons), qianlong (money dragons), zhulong (bamboo dragons), zonglong (palm-fiber dragons), bandenglong (bench dragons), baiyelong (leaf dragons), hehualong (lotus dragons), huolong (fire dragons), jimaolong (chicken-feather dragons), roulong (meat dragons) and so on; dragon costumes in northern China are usually tall and husky and have a simple and powerful style; conversely, in southern China, dragons are exquisitely made, and are characterized by beauty and agility. In terms of color, dragons in the performance are divided into yellow, white, blue, red and black dragon etc., with the yellow dragon being the most honorable. The composition and movement in dragon dances normally features circling, tumbling, twisting, interweaving and leaping. Traditionally, a dragon performance starts from inviting the dragon, dragon approaching, dragon dancing and dragon seeing-off. There is an old folk saying: “playing a straw dragon at seven or eight, a small dragon at fifteen or sixteen and a giant one at sturdy youth”. At the dance, there may be one performer playing two dragons, or as many as one hundred playing a giant one.

龙是中华民族的图腾和信奉的祖先;龙舞是华夏精神的象征,它体现了中华民族团结合力、奋发开拓的精神面貌,包含了天人和谐、造福人类的文化内涵,是中国人在吉庆和祝福时节最常见的娱乐方式,气氛热烈,催人振奋,是中华民族极为珍贵的文化遗产。

A dragon is a Chinese totem and a worshiped ancestor; a dragon dance is considered a spiritual symbol of China, embodying the Chinese solidarity, hardworking spirit and aggressiveness. A cultural manifestation of harmony between man and nature and heavenly blessing, it is the most typical form of entertainment of the Chinese people at auspicious festivals. The folk dance, impassioned, inspired and elevated, is one of China’s rarest cultural heritages.

龙舞•铜梁龙舞

Dragon Dance -Tongliang longwu

申报地区或单位:重庆市

Nominating unit(s): Chongqing City

铜梁龙舞系流传于重庆市铜梁县境内的一种以龙为主要道具的舞蹈艺术形式。它兴起于明,鼎盛于清,在当代重放异彩,饮誉全球。

Tongliang longwu refers to an artistic form of dancing which mainly uses a dragon as the prop and enjoys popularity in Tongliang County, Chongqing. It sprang up in the Ming Dynasty and flourished in the Qing Dynasty; today, it is redisplaying its extraordinary splendor and has become well-known worldwide.

铜梁龙舞包括龙灯舞和彩灯舞两大系列。龙灯舞主要包括大蠕龙、火龙、稻草龙、笋壳龙、黄荆龙、板凳龙、正龙、小彩龙、竹梆龙、荷花龙十个品种,其中以大蠕龙最有特色。彩灯舞主要包括鱼跃龙门、泥鳅吃汤圆、三条、十八学士、亮狮、开山虎、蚌壳精、犀牛望月、猪啃南瓜、高台龙狮舞、雁塔题名、南瓜棚十二个品种。

Tongliang longwu includes two major series: a dragon-lantern dance and a colored lantern dance. A dragon-lantern dance mainly includes ten varieties, darulong (a giant wiggling dragon), huolong (a fire dragon), daocaolong (a straw dragon), sunkelong (a bamboo-shoot covered dragon), huangjinglong (a vitex dragon), bandenglong (a bench dragon), zhenglong (an upright dragon), xiaocailong (a little colored dragon), zhubanglong (a bamboo clapper dragon) and hehualong (a lotus dragon), among which the most distinctive is darulong. The colored lantern dance mainly incorporates twelve varieties, including the yuyue longmen (a fish jumping longmen), niqiu chi tangyuan (eel eating rice dumplings), santiao, shiba xueshi (eighteen scholars), liangshi (staging a lion), kaishanhu (a tiger settling down in a mountain), bangkejing (a clamshell fairy), xiniu wangyue (a rhinoceros looking at the moon), zhu keng nan’gua (a pig gnawing on a pumpkin), gaotai longshiwu (a dragon dancing with lions on a high stage), yanta ti’ming (jumping to inscribe), and nangua peng (pumpkin trellis).

铜梁龙舞有与民俗活动紧密相连、套路丰富、动律谐趣的特点,伴奏音乐独特,道具构思巧妙,造型夸张,服饰俭朴大方,舞者参舞自由,退舞方便,群众参与性极强。

Tongliang longwu is characterized by a close link to folk customs, abundant movements and amusing rhythms. The accompaniment is distinctive, props are ingeniously devised, dancing styles are exaggerated, and costumes are simple but naturally posed. There is freedom to join the dance and convenience in withdrawing, thus it enjoys a high participation rate among local people.

铜梁龙舞体现了团结合力、造福人类、奋发向上、与天和谐的精神,同时具有娱神娱人、彰显威力等社会功能。铜梁龙舞闻名于世的仅大蠕龙、火龙等少数品种,多数龙舞品种已处于濒危境地,亟待保护和拯救

The dance reflects the spirit of solidarity, joint-effort, and harmony with heaven, and possesses social functions of entertaining divinity, man and demonstrating prowess. Only a few varieties are well-known, such as darulong and huolong, while most other varieties are now in an endangered state and in urgent need of rescue and conservation.

龙舞•湛江人龙舞

Dragon Dance • Zhanjiang renlongwu

申报地区或单位:广东省湛江市

Nominating unit(s): Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province

广东省东海岛东山镇东山圩村的人龙舞素有“东方一绝”的美称。表演时,几十至数百名青壮年和少年均穿短裤,以人体相接,组成一条“长龙”。在锣鼓震天、号角齐鸣中,“长龙”龙头高昂,龙身翻腾,龙尾劲摆,一如蛟龙出海,排山倒海,势不可挡,显现出独特的海岛色彩和浓厚的乡土气息,是东海岛乃至雷州半岛经久不衰的民间风俗和大型广场娱乐活动的重要组成部分。每逢春节、元宵、中秋佳节和一些重大喜庆节日,东山圩村必连舞几个晚上“人龙”,东西两街户户张灯结彩,家家倾巢而出,人流如潮,热闹非凡。

Renlongwu, which remains popular in Dongshanwei Village, Dongshan Town, Donghai Island, Guangdong Province, has long been reputed as “an ingenious skill in the East”. In the performance, dozens or even hundreds of youths and young adults, all dressed in shorts, are physically connected and form a long “dragon”. Along with the thundering gongs, drums and horns, the dragon raises its head high, its body twisting with a swiping tail, as if spectacularly rising from the sea with an irresistible momentum. The dance displays a unique and strong island flavor of the locals and enjoys an unfailing popularity in Donghai Island and the Leizhou Peninsula. It has become an important constituent in large-scale square entertainment. During every festival, such as the Spring Festival, the Lantern Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival, or a red-letter day, renlong must be performed for several nights in succession at Dongshanwei Village. Houses along the east and west streets are decorated with lanterns and streamers, and crowded with endless streams of people, creating a truly bustling scene.

据艺人传说,人龙舞大约始于明末,被清军打败的明军撤退到雷州半岛和东海岛,适逢中秋,地方百姓为鼓舞明军士气,编排了这个舞蹈。此后人龙舞便在这里流传开来,至清乾嘉时达于鼎盛。人龙舞是东海岛特殊社会历史因素与地域自然条件的产物,它将古海岛群众娱龙、敬龙、祭海、尊祖、奉神等多种风俗融入“人龙”之中,形成了自创一体、独具一格的龙舞表演形式和“人龙”精神。湛江人龙舞有起龙、龙点头、龙穿云、龙卷浪等独具特色的表演程式,表演者练就了快速托人上肩的稳健动作和步法,队形流畅多变,动作一气呵成,远望动感十足,近观粗犷雄壮,成为中华龙文化延伸与发展的重要组成部分。

According to legends, the dance may have begun at the end of the Ming Dynasty, when defeated troops withdrew to the Leizhou Peninsula and Donghai Island. When the Mid-Autumn Festival arrived, the locals devised and performed the dance to enhance troop morale. Later, it spread far and flourished in the Qianlong and Jiaqing periods. Renlongwu is a result of the unique social and historical factors in specific geographical and natural conditions. It has integrated a number of local customs, such as dragon games, dragon worship, sea sacrifices, and respect to ancestors and gods, developing into a dragon dance performance featuring unique style and "Renlong" spirit. Renlongwu in Zhanjiang follows defined performance procedures, such as qilong (dragon rising), longdiantou (dragon nodding) longchuanyun (dragon going through the clouds) and longjuanlang (dragon rolling waves) etc. Performers have been trained to master steady movements and footwork to prop up others onto their shoulders. The formations are smooth and diversified, and movements are coherent, appearing dynamic at a distance and rough and powerful upon closer viewing. The dance has become an important part for the extension and development of Chinese dragon culture.

时代变迁,人龙舞逐渐失去了往日的吸引力,处于衰落状态,为保护民间文化遗产,有必要对它进行尽快抢救和整理。

As times change, renlongwu has gradually lost its original appeal, and is now in decline. In order to conserve folk cultural heritage, conservation efforts are urgently required.

 龙舞
Dragon Dance

龙舞•汕尾滚地金龙

Dragon Dance •Shanwei gundi Jinlong

申报地区或单位:广东省汕尾市

Nominating unit(s): Shanwei City, Guangdong Province

根据广东省汕尾市南溪村老人黄天枢藏书中的记载和部分知情者的叙述,“滚地金龙”始创于南宋,明嘉靖年间,黄氏光昭公一支从福建漳州移居广东陆丰南溪村,带来《滚地金龙演史传》的传本。黄氏南溪“滚地金龙”繁衍了十七代。后来由该村的金龙艺师、传统武术师传到陆丰潭西镇深沟村,大安镇的安博、下安联、顶潭、安塘村,西南镇的两军、下村,陆丰城东镇的上神山村等地。

According to books collected by Huang Tianshu, an elder from Nanxi Village, Shanwei City and the narration by others familiar with the matter, gundi jinlong originated in the South Song Dynasty (1127-1279); during the Jiajing Period (1507-1567), a branch of the Huang Family, led by a Mr. Huang, whose posthumous name was Guangzhao, moved their residence to Nanxi Village, Lufeng, Guangdong from Zhangzhou, Fujian, and carried with them an edition of The Historical Record of the Performance of Gundi Jinlong. Gundi jinlong of the Huang Family at Nanxi has been passed on for 17 generations. Later, the masters of the art and teachers of traditional martial arts at the village spread it to Shengou Village, Tanxi Town, to the villages of Anbo, Xia’anlian, Dingtan, and Antang at Da’an Town, to the villages of Liangjun and Xiacun at Xi’nan Town, and to other places such as Shangshenshan Village at Chengdong Town, Lufeng.

南溪村“滚地金龙”表演时,由二人钻入“龙身被套”,一人舞龙头,一人舞龙尾。整个表演过程分为“开场见礼”、“打围巡洞”、“游潭戏水”、“抻筋洗鳞”、“伏蛰闻雷”、“迎雷起舞”、“驾云飞腾”、“收场还礼”八个舞段,表演中模仿的龙旋舞飞腾、戏水嬉耍、沉思奋醒、柔静盘曲、勇猛奋进等动作。伴奏用威武雄壮、嘹亮开阔的海陆丰正字戏的“牌子大锣鼓”,大唢呐按不同的表演情节吹奏不同的曲调,有【宫娥怨】、【哭皇天】、【山坡羊】、【八板头】等曲牌。表情丰富、套路众多、舞段精彩、技艺兼善是这个舞蹈的基本特点。

During the performance, two performers are wrapped into a dragon cover, one playing the dragon head and the other the tail. The whole performance consists of eight parts, namely, kaichang jianli (greeting), dawei xundong (inspecting around the cave), youtan xishui (playing with water), chenjin xilin (stretching and washing scales), fuzhi wenlei (hibernating and listening to thunder), yinglei qiwu (dancing to meet the thunder), jiayun feiteng (soaring over the clouds), and shouchang huanli (ending courtesy). In the dance, the performers imitate movements of a dragon, such as rotating and flying, playing with water, wakening and deliberating, soft twisting and powerful spurting. The performance is accompanied by paizi large gongs and drums, which sound broad and resonant and are often performed at Zhengzi Opera of Hailufeng. The performance also features big suona horns, an instrument capable of playing different tunes for different plots. Frequently-used melodies in the performance include Gong’e yuan, Ku huangtian, Shan poyang and Ba bantou etc. Expressiveness, diversified movement flows, splendid dance postures and superb skills are basic features of the dance.

1996年,南溪村被广东省文化厅授予“民族民间艺术之乡”称号,滚地金龙被编入《中国舞蹈志》,并在国家和省级地区的重大活动中多次获奖。

In 1996, Nanxi Village was honored as “The Home of Ethnic and Folk Arts” by the Department of Culture of Guangdong Province; gundi jinlong has been listed in The Annals of Chinese Dances, and got many awards in national and provincial events.

龙舞•浦江板凳龙

Dragon Dance • Pujiang bandenglong

申报地区或单位:浙江省浦江县

Nominating unit(s): Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province

浦江县位于浙江中部偏西,金华市北部。据浦江白马镇夏张村张姓族谱载,自唐朝始,“龙腾灯舞闹元宵”便成了浦江民间的习俗,浦江县志中称之为“灯节”。浦江板凳龙盛行于浦江县乡村,广泛流传于江南沿海各地。综观浦江板凳龙的传承发展,唐代为其孕育期,宋、元为其成熟期,明、清为其鼎盛期;中华人民共和国成立后,尤其是改革开放以后,为其弘扬传承期。

Pujiang County lies in the west part of the central Zhejiang, north of Jinhua City. According to the genealogy of the Zhang clan at Xiazhang Village, Baima Town, Pujiang, it has been a folk tradition in Pujiang to “play dragons and lanterns during the celebration of the Lantern Festival” since the Tang Dynasty, and in the county annals, it is named the “Lantern Festival”. Pujiang bandenglong prevails at villages in Pujiang County, and is widely distributed in coastal regions to the south of the Yangtze River. A survey on the bandenglong dance indicates that it originated in the Tang Dynasty, matured in the Song and Yuan dynasties and flourished in the Ming and Qing dynasties; since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, especially after the reform and opening up, it has been in a stage of inheritance.

I从构造上看,浦江板凳龙由龙头、龙身(子灯)、龙尾三部分组成,俗称长灯。根据龙头造型,可分仰天龙、俯地龙、大虾龙等类别。因凳板(龙身)上的设置造型不同,亦有方灯、酒坛灯、字灯等十一种不同的形态。每逢节日或重大庆典兴灯,以麦饼团、剪刀箍、甩尾巴为主要表演阵式。

In formation, Pujiang bandenglong consists of a dragon head, a dragon body (sub lantern) and a dragon tail, and is commonly known as changdeng (a long lantern). Based on the modeling of the dragon head, it can be divided into yangtianlong (a head-raised dragon), fudilong (a crouching dragon), daxialong (a prawn-like dragon) and other categories. Because of the various modeling forms on the bench boards (the dragon body), there are eleven different styles, such as a square lantern, a wine-jar lantern, and a Chinese-character lantern etc. At a festival or an important ceremony, the dance is performed in its main patterns, including maibingtuan (rolling in the shape of a wheat cake), jiandaogu (tightening) and shuaiweiba (tail swiping).

浦江板凳龙,顾名思义就是一条条用单个板凳串联而成的游动的龙灯,它让人们充分感受到广场民间舞蹈气势恢宏、刚强柔美的特征,在锣声、号角、铳声震天,喝彩声此起彼伏的氛围中接受和领悟娱己娱人的生活习俗和敬天顺人的民众信仰。一条浦江板凳龙几乎就是一个艺术综合体,它集书法、绘画、剪纸、刻花、雕塑艺术和扎制编糊工艺为一体,融体育、杂技、舞蹈为一炉。游动起来的龙舞兼有粗犷、细腻、奔放、严整的风格,通过这种激情与哲理、娱乐教化合一的舞蹈,人们得到了感官和心灵的双重满足。浦江板凳龙是地道的百姓文化,广场性、广泛性、惊险性为其主要特征,其参加人数之多、活动场地之大,在同类形式中实属罕见。

Pujiang bandenglong, as its Chinese name suggests, is made up with moving dragon lanterns connected to each other by single benches. It highlights all the magnificence, power and grace that a folk square dance can display. In the joyous music played by gongs, horns and blunderbusses, and among rising cheers, spectators can appreciate an ancient custom and a civic belief of worshipping heaven and valuing humanity. Pujiang bandenglong is essentially an artistic complex, integrating such artistic forms as calligraphy, painting, paper-cutting, carved design, sculpture making, paper binding and pasting, and bringing together physical education, acrobatics and dancing. When moving about, the dragon dance has a rough but elegant, unrestrained but orderly style. Through its passionate and philosophical means, the dance achieves a good combination between entertainment and cultivation, and both performers and spectators attain both sensory and spiritual satisfaction. As a form of authentic folk culture, it features a square nature, universality and adventurous feeling, and is unique in terms of the number of participants and venue size.

浦江板凳龙保留了中国尤其是浙中和江南沿海一带“龙信仰”的民间文化传统,融汇了书画、剪纸等民间艺术的民间形态,传承了群众体育和广场舞蹈的艺术形式,具有民俗、历史研究价值和民间工艺传承功能,在浦江和浙中及江南沿海一带产生了深远而广泛的影响。但时代变迁所造成的冲击也不可避免地降临在浦江板凳龙身上,使它的传承陷入窘境,亟待抢救与保护。

Pujiang bandenglong has maintained a folk cultural heritage of a dragon belief popular in China, especially in the central Zhejiang and coastal regions to the south of the Yangtze River. It incorporates various folk art patterns, such as paper-cutting and calligraphy, carries forward the artistic forms of public activities and square dances, and possesses great value for research of folk customs and history as well as a vital function for the inheritance of folk arts and crafts. The dance has produced a deep and far-ranging influence in Pujiang, central Zhejiang, and the coastal regions to the south of the Yangtze River. But, the changing times have had an inevitable impact on Pujiang bandenglong. Its inheritance is currently in jeopardy, and it is in urgent need of conservation and rescue.

龙舞•长兴百叶龙

Dragon Dance •Changxing baiyelong

申报地区或单位:浙江省长兴县

Nominating unit(s): Changxing County, Zhejiang Province

长兴百叶龙发源并流传于浙江省长兴县林城镇一带,至今已有一百六十多年的历史

Changxing baiyelong, originated and spread around Lincheng Town, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, boasts a history of over 160 years.

传统百叶龙多在庙会及节庆时表演,先从“游四门”、“圆场”等队形开始,当荷花灯聚成圆圈、相互连接以构成“龙”形时,外圈舞队热烈舞蹈,以遮引观众视线;“龙”一成形,即腾空跃起,众舞队立时散开,突出百叶龙,形成高潮。

Traditionally, baiyelong was mostly performed at temple fairs or festivals. The performance starts from yousimen (moving around four gates) and yuanchang (turning round the playground); when the lotus lanterns are gathered to form a circle and interlinked one after another to make the shape of a dragon, the dancing squad on the outer circle performs with fervor, so as to attract spectators’ attention. The dragon then rises high into the air. As soon as the dragon takes shape, the dancing squads scatter immediately. As the baiyelong is highlighted, the performance reaches its climax.

百叶龙的表演方式也划分为舞台舞、行街舞、广场舞等不同形式,且日趋复杂,以适应不同的表演场合。其主要队形有长蛇阵、接龙、踩四门、剪刀阵、走四角等,主要动作有游龙、滚龙、龙盘柱、腾龙、卧龙、睡龙、龙出水、龙吐须等。

In terms of performing patterns, baiyelong can be divided into a stage dance, a street-moving dance and a square dance etc. These patterns develop with an increasing complexity in order to fit different occasions. The main formations include changshezhen ( a long snake layout), jielong (connected dragons), caisimen (stepping over four gates), jiandaozhen (a scissor layout), and zousijiao (moving around four corners), and its main movements involve youlong (a wandering dragon), gunlong (a rolling dragon), longpanzhu (a dragon encircling pillars), tenglong (a soaring dragon), wolong (a crouching dragon), shuilong (a sleeping dragon), longchushui (a dragon rising under the water), and longtuxu (a dragon tossing its beards) etc.

百叶龙舞蹈表演时,荷花在瞬间突变成龙是其最显著的特点,由此将中国传统的舞龙转化成龙舞,通过湖水荡漾、荷叶摆动、荷花盛开、彩蝶扑飞、荷花变龙、蛟龙嬉戏、龙变荷花等动作和情节,完成一个完美的舞蹈过程,展出江南水乡的绝美意境。

The performance is most noticeably characterized with an instantaneously transformation of lotus flowers into a dragon. It is the dance that turned a traditional Chinese dragon parade into a dragon dance. After going through movements and plots, such as an undulated lake, swinging lotus leaves, booming lotuses, fluttering butterflies, lotus changing into a dragon, dragon playing, and the dragon changing into a lotus etc., the performance accomplishes a perfect dance and displays the fabulously poetic imagery of a water village typically found in the south of the Yangtze River.

1957年,百叶龙荣获第二届全国民间音乐舞蹈汇演特等奖,由周恩来总理推荐参加莫斯科“第六届世界青年大学生联欢节”演出,荣获金奖,2000年又获“群星奖”舞蹈大赛金奖。

In 1957, baiyelong won a special award at the 2nd China Joint Performance of Folk Music and Dances, and after having been recommended by former Premier Zhou Enlai, it participated in The 6th World Festival of Youth and Students in Moscow and received a gold medal. In 2000, it earned the golden award at the Stars Award Dance Contest.

长兴百叶龙作为中国汉民族一种独特的民间舞蹈,具有极高的艺术价值。时代的变迁给长兴百叶龙的有序传承带来了影响,使这一宝贵的民间艺术形式面临生存危机。为保护、传承百叶龙艺术,长兴地方政府未雨绸缪,采取了一系列有效措施,一个保护地方文化资源、共创特色文化品牌的良好氛围正在形成。

As a unique folk dance of the Han nationality, baiyelong possesses extremely high artistic value. However, changing times are now affecting the inheritance of the dance, and this rare folk art is in danger of becoming extinct. In order to conserve and inherit the art, the local government of Changxing has taken some precautions and adopted a series of effective measures. As a result of their efforts, a strong atmosphere of conserving local cultural resources and creating featured cultural brands is gradually coming into being.

 龙舞
Dragon Dance

龙舞•奉化布龙

Dragon Dance • Fenghua bulong

申报地区或单位:浙江省奉化市

Nominating unit(s): Fenghua City, Zhejiang Province

奉化布龙因起源和流布于浙江奉化而得名,是全国颇有影响的代表性龙舞之一。它由敬神、请神、娱神的民间仪式逐渐演变成为富有特色的民间舞蹈,迄今已有八百多年历史。

Fenghua bulong, named after the place where it originated and became popularized, is one of Chinese representative dances with a nationwide influence. It evolved into a folk dance with regional features from a folk ritual consisting of worshiping, inviting and entertaining the gods. So far, it has had a history of over 800 years.

舞得活、舞得圆、神态真、套路多、速度快是奉化布龙的主要艺术特征。整个舞蹈由盘、滚、游、翻、跳、戏等基本套路和小游龙、大游龙、龙钻尾等过渡动作组成,舞者动作矫健,舞姿变化多端,技艺娴熟。所有舞蹈动作都在龙的游动中进行,能做到“形变龙不停,龙走套路生”,“人紧龙也圆,龙飞人亦舞”,造型生动,转换巧妙,动作间的衔接和递进十分紧凑。由于龙身轻,舞动起来速度快,龙圈环环相扣,龙身紧紧缠绕。奉化布龙传统套路多达四十余个,为一般龙舞所罕见,其中有的已被用作国家体育舞龙比赛的规定动作,为大江南北的龙舞所移植。

The main artistic features are lively and tactful playing, authentic mannerisms, diversified movement flows and a rapid speed. The entire performance includes some basic flows, such as encircling, rolling, wandering, turning, leaping and playing, and transition movements, such as xiaoyoulong (a little wandering dragon), dayoulong (a giant wandering dragon), and longzuanwei (the dragon playing with the tail) etc.; performers usually execute swift movements, changing postures with adept skills. All the dancing movements must be performed along with the wandering routes of the dragon, and ensure that the “formation changes when the dragon wanders, forms change when the dragon moves, the dragon looks round as performers gather closely together, and performers dance as the dragon soars”. The performance features lively formations, clever transitions, well-knitted links and advances between movements. As the dragon is light and played at a fast pace, the dragon circles are all linked with one another and its body is tightly intertwined. Fenghua bulong has up to 40 traditional movements, a number rarely seen in dragon dances. Some of the movements have become compulsory routines in state dragon dance athletic competitions and transplanted into similar performances in other parts of the country.

由于奉化布龙的文化价值较突出,且民间流布的生态环境面临潜在的危机,故地方政府已将它率先列入保护范畴。1990年,奉化布龙入选《中国民族民间舞蹈集成(浙江卷)》;1996年,奉化市被文化部命名为“中国民间艺术之乡”;2005年,奉化布龙被浙江省政府列入首批非物质文化遗产代表作名录。

In light of the Fenghua bulong’s outstanding cultural value and the fact that the ecological environment for its popularization among folk people is now faced with potential crisis, the local government has already taken steps to conserve it. In 1990, Fenghua bulong was selected into The Collection of Chinese Folk Dances (Zhejiang Volume); in 1996, Fenghua City was named the “Home of Chinese Folk Arts” by the Ministry of Culture; in 2005, Fenghua bulong was listed in the first group of Representitive Works of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the Zhejiang Provincial Government.

龙舞•泸州雨坛彩龙

Dragon Dance • Luzhou yutan cailong

申报地区或单位:四川省泸县

Nominating unit(s): Luxian County, Sichuan Province

四川泸州雨坛彩龙以其悠久的历史和浪漫的龙舞表演艺术被誉为“东方活龙”。清光绪十八年左右,当地艺人将原有的“草把龙”改成彩龙,到1919年,出现了第一条雨坛彩龙。自此每逢年节或婚丧嫁娶,当地百姓都要舞彩龙。

Luzhou yutan cailong, owing to its long history and passionate performance, is renowned as the “Eastern Living Dragon”. On the 18th year of Guangxu reign (1898) of the Qing Dynasty, local entertainers in Luzhou transformed the original grass-bundle dragon into a colored dragon, and in 1919, the first yutan cailong was created. Since then, at each festival, wedding or funeral, locals have put on colored dragon performances.

雨坛彩龙的表演重在一个“活”字,“人龙合一”。表演时舞者“动于中而形于外”,“心有性情,手衍神色”,“手随眼动,眼随心动”。在川剧打击乐的伴奏下,龙与“宝”交织缠绵,紧紧呼应,在龙舞中对龙的个性特征、生活情态进行生动的描摹。雨坛彩龙按连绵不断的太极图案行进表演,套路变幻莫测,表演活泼灵动,变化多端,或脱衣,或翻滚,或叹气,或擦痒,极显龙之性情。在此过程中,舞者与龙的情感融为一体。

The focus of the performance is on liveliness, and the combination of performers and the dragon. During the performance, performers must “move inside but keep visible, express themselves through their hands, and achieve harmony among their hands, eyes and minds”. Accompanied by percussion music of the Chuan Opera, the dragon interweaves with a “treasure” in a beautiful concert. Performers must vividly act out the typical features and mannerisms of the dragon. The dragon is played in a successive pattern of Tai Ji, which introduces a series enlivened movements; the moods and manners of the dragon are revealed, either by stripping off the cover, turning and rolling, sighing, or itch rubbing. During the process, the performers integrate themselves with the sentiments of the dragon which they are attempting to depict.

在漫长的表演实践中,雨坛彩龙的传人们不断更新、丰富表演内容,形成了完整的表演套路和经典的动作造型,如龙出洞、龙抢宝、龙脱衣、龙背剑、龙叹气、龙砌塔、龙抱柱、黄龙滚、倒挂金钩、太子骑龙等,最大限度地展示了人们对龙的想象。

Over the long course of the performance, performers have consistently upgraded and enriched the content and developed a full set of movements and typical models, such as longchudong (a dragon crawling out of the cave), longqiangbao (a dragon grabbing a treasure), longtuoyi (a dragon stripping off the cover), longbeijian (a dragon carrying a sword), longtanqi (dragon sighing), longqieta (a dragon laying a pagoda), longbaozhu (a dragon embracing a pillar), huanglonggun (a yellow dragon rolling), daogua jingou (a dragon kicking overhead), taizi qilong (a prince riding a dragon), which demonstrating the imagination of people on dragon to the most extent.

雨坛彩龙的龙头造型独特,主要依据泸县全国重点文物保护单位龙脑桥的龙头设计,额高,嘴短,双目突出可动,下颌开合自如,形象既威武有神,又憨愚可亲。龙身用竹篾扎制成骨架,分组分节,可长可短。整个龙身用竹篾扎成圈,相互串联,套上龙衣后灵活多变。龙尾也区别于一般的火炬尾、蛇形尾,呈鲢鱼状,极富情趣。

Yutan cailong has a dragon head with a special shape, whose design is mainly derived from the dragon head on the Longtou Bridge, an important heritage site under state protection in Luxian County. The design features a protruding forehead, a short mouth, protruding, moveable eyes, and a lower jaw that opens and closes freely. The entire image forms a majestic, naive, loveably, silly and amiable appearance. The body of the dragon is framed with bamboo splits in joints and parts, and thus has a changeable length. The whole body, made in circles with the splits, is interlinked and becomes highly flexible when put on a dragon cover. The tail differs from that of a commonly-seen dragon as well. In the shape of a snake tail, it wears scales and is full of liveliness.

以艺人罗银坤等罗氏兄弟为代表,构成了雨坛彩龙的传承人系统。在当代,这个传人系统大大拓展,不仅有一批青年人加入,而且重庆、铜梁、成都等地还派人来学艺,雨坛彩龙的流布区域由此得到了扩展。时下,雨坛彩龙同样面临新时代的挑战,急需建立保护和传承机制。

The Luo Brothers, represented by performers Luo Yinkun, make up the inheritance squad of yutan cailong. The squad has greatly expanded in recent years. New members include not only a team of young pupils, but also people from Chongqing, Tongliang and Chengdu etc.; as a result, yutan cailong enjoys popularity over an expanded geographical area. Still, yutan cailong is faced with the challenges of a new era, and badly in need of conservation and inheritance.

相关传承人

Inheritor(s):

黄廷炎 黄锐胜 谈小明 陈行国 罗德书 费土根 黄焯根 杨书范 郑玉华

Huang Tingyan, Huang Ruisheng, Tan Xiaoming, Chen Xingguo, Luo Deshu, Fei Tugeng, Huang Chaogen, Yang Shufan and Zheng Yuhua.

 

 龙舞
Dragon Dance
 
 龙舞
Dragon Dance

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